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• 29/8/2012 - Trickle Charging for Ni-MH battery

Last time we talked about standard charging for NiMH battery. Today let's come to trickle charging.

Now that we know what the standard charger is, how do we use it? Most important, follow the manufacturer's instructions. A typical manufacturer recommends a 15 hour charge to fully charge a discharged battery. If your battery is only partially discharged, your can prorate the charge time. For instance, a battery that is one third discharged will fully charge in only 5 hours. If you don't know the condition of your battery, then you should charge it for the full 15 hours. What happens if you forget to disconnect the charger and end up charging for more than the required amount? If you overcharge by only a few hours, don't worry. If you leave your charger connected for a couple of days, then you're unduly stressing your batteries. If you're the forgetful or worrying type, then you might want to use a timer. I like to use the standard 24 hour security timer, used to switch lights on and off when you're away.

This section is called "Trickle Charging" because that's the term we are all familiar with. This section is really about keeping your batteries fully charged. Trickle charging is one way to do that, charge replacement the other. To avoid confusion, I'll use the term "trickle charging" to refer to any method of keeping your batteries fully charged.

Now that we know how to fully charge our batteries, when do we trickle charge? If you usually charge your batteries the day before you intend to use them, you don't need to trickle charge. If, on the other hand, you're like me and want to have all your batteries charged and ready to go, you need a trickle charging system.

Ni-MH cells, like all batteries, self-discharge. NiCds and NiMH actually have a relatively high self-discharge rate of about 1% per day at room temperature (i.e. a 600mAh cell loses about 6mAh each day). The purpose of trickle charging is to replace the charge that is continually draining off.

Trickle charging is similar to standard charging (i.e. it uses a continuous charging current), only less current is used, between C/50 and C/20 (i.e. between 12mA and 30mA for a 600mAh cell). This rate is high enough to maintain a charged battery fully charged, yet low enough to permit continuous charging while keeping cell temperature and internal cell pressure at a safe level.

Standard charging and trickle charging are all related to cylindric Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries. But some of the NiMH batteries are like the prismatic li po batteries. The charging ways may be a little different.

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• 29/8/2012 - NiMH Charging Issue

The best rechargeable NiMH battery you can buy will not last long if you don't take good care of it. This primarily means charging it correctly. There are two main classes of chargers, "dumb" and "smart".

It is acknowledged that NiMH batteries are much fussier to charge, but the known problems may not necessarily stem from the chemistry of the cells themselves but their use in parallel/series combination packs, such as those used in higher capacity canister lights. This may have created the perception that NiMH batteries are unpredictable in terms of charging and known capacity. However, if a pack is properly designed, and the charger is properly implemented, the capacities are predictable. If one is still concerned, a "watt-hour" meter can be used in series with the battery when charging to log what capacity was returned to the pack.

Other than using low-self-discharge batteries, one way to ensure you always have a set of NiMH batteries ready for use is to attach them to an appropriate trickle charger. A trickle charger is similar to a slow dumb charger, except that it's even slower. Typically, the charge rate is only slightly more than the self-discharge rate of the battery. The trickle charger produces only enough current to keep the battery from self-discharging. Think of filling a bathtub with an eyedropper, just fast enough to make up for the water that's evaporating.

The reason dumb chargers were so popular is that they are inexpensive to make. It needs no brains to determine when to stop. Although overuse of such a charger damages the battery, this damage appears as a gradual reduction in capacity rather than a catastrophic failure.

Slow vs. fast charging.

It can be counter intuitive, but for Ni-MH fast can be better. Why? Because is makes the full charge detection at zero delta V more reliable.

One is looking at the change in voltage against time. If one charges slowly then the change in voltage vs. time can be extremely subtle and very very hard to detect, it's really a signal to noise ratio problem.

If one fast charges (-4) then the transition from a positive slope to a zero slope becomes more distinct. In the real world this is the preferred technique.

The main advantage of super-fast charging is that you can quickly have a set of batteries ready for use. With the introduction of low-self-discharge batteries, this isn't really necessary any more since you can store the batteries in their fully charged state, ready to go.

Now let's combine a fast and trickle charger to assemble your own charging system. You can use your security timer to charge your batteries, then automatically trickle charge them. Remember where a timer without removable pins was used to charge up you batteries. During the first day the batteries charge for 15 hours. On subsequent days the batteries charge an additional one half hour. This will keep them fully charged and ready for use. You can do the same using a single cycle timer. Just insert the ON pin one half hour before the OFF pin. You can now leave and forget about it.

If you know that you're not going to be using your battery for more than a couple of months, take your batteries off your trickle charger and just remember to fully charge them before use. Also, even though your batteries are on trickle charge, you still need to do a full discharge test every month or so to ensure their condition. One final note of caution. The first couple of times using a new trickle charger system insure that the batteries are really fully charged before you use them. Ideally, you would measure their capacity at least a day before using them by a discharge test and then fully charge them.

When making a charger for NiMH battery, we are making it for the standard cylindric NiMH battery. Some of their size is the same with primary batteries, such as AA or AAA carbon battery and alkaline battery.

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• 29/8/2012 - Fast "Smart" Charging for Ni-MH Battery

With NiMH batteries' lower tolerance to continued overcharging, so-called "smart" chargers have become more common. In addition to not overcharging, these chargers charge much faster, typically in one to five hours depending on the charger. The reason there are no dumb fast chargers is that overcharging at these higher rates can result in a battery overheating, popping its seals, and possibly starting a fire.

A good fast charger uses one of two methods to determine that the charge is complete: negative delta-voltage, or delta-temperature. The first of these detects the voltage drop that a NiMH battery exhibits if you attempt to keep charging it when it won't take any more. The second method detects the temperature increase once the excess charging current starts getting turned into heat.

A good fast charger is much better for the battery than blindly slow charging it. However, a bad fast charger (one that doesn't turn off very soon after charging is completed) can damage batteries too.

Note: Be careful when purchasing a USB-powered NiMH charger. The term "USB Battery Charger" has taken on two separate meanings: a USB-powered NiMH charger like we are discussing here, or a device meant for powering other USB-powered devices (like MP3 players). Vendors, even in traditional stores, often don't know the difference.

Not all NiMH batteries are standard batteries. It can be made custom battery as well. By placing them in series or parallel, you can get a higher voltage than 1.2V and larger capacity. Then charger for the custom made NiMH battery pack will be different from the charger for single cells.

Super-fast Chargers (15 Minutes to 1 Hour)

Charging rechargeable batteries in well under an hour is not new. We've been doing this for years in the electric model airplane and car hobby, primarily with NiCd batteries. Recently, several 15 minute chargers have appeared for AA consumer NiMH batteries. At first glance this might seem like a great idea, but it isn't.

Due to the internal resistance of any battery, the charging process produces heat. The amount of heat produced is proportional to the square of the charging rate. In other words, if you charge four times as fast (for example, 15 minutes instead of 1 hour), you will produce sixteen times as much heat!

The reason we got away with it for model batteries is two-fold:

Because of the high currents used in electric powered models (typically anywhere from 10 to 40A), we used NiCd batteries with extremely low internal resistance (the same ones used in power tools). This translates to proportionally lower heat production during charging.

The chemical reaction involved in NiCd charging is endothermic, meaning that it causes the batteries to cool. Up to a point, this cooling is more than enough to absorb the heat produced by the internal resistance. The NiMH charging reaction doesn't have this handy property.

A good quality consumer AA Ni-MH battery has a much higher internal resistance than the larger Sub-C sized batteries used in electric models. At the same time, it has less surface area with which to dissipate heat. Charging it at the very high currents required for a 15 minute charge will produce immense amounts of heat, which, after a very small number of recharges, this will cause the battery to deteriorate.

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• 29/8/2012 - Charging NiCd and NiMH Batteries

The most frequent charging method for NiCd and NiMH batteries we use is standard charging. But for the sake of battery, we also need tricle charging. Here let's first tald about standard charging.

The "overnight" charger that comes with most rechargeable powered products charges at a rate of C/10 (the C rate is the hour capacity of the battery, i.e. a typical AA NiCd battery of 600mAh capacity has a C rate of 600mA, and a C/10 rate of 60mA). There is a very good reason why the manufacturer chose this rate. If the charger uses a higher rate, it would have to detect when the batteries are fully charged and shut off, or risk damaging them. This would make the charger more complex, and hence more expensive. Lower charge rates than C/10 unnecessarily extend the charging time, and in fact at very low rates (below C/50) the batteries never fully charge no matter how long you wait.

Thus the C/10 charging rate is a compromise between keeping the charger simple, yet charging the batteries in an acceptable amount of time. At the C/10 rate the battery will reach a full charge after approximately 14 to 16 hours. If the actual battery capacity was the same as its rated value, and its charging efficiency was 100% then only 10 hours would be necessary to fully charge a battery. But, actual capacity is usually greater than rated and charging efficiency is always less than 100%, thus 14 to 16 hours of C/10 charging ensures a fully charged battery. At this point any further charging only results in an increase in temperature and internal cell pressure. This does not damage the battery, although it accelerates their deterioration thus reduces their reliability.

A "dumb" charger charges the battery very slowly, typically taking 14 to 16 hours to fully charge a dead battery. When the battery is full, the charger keeps charging it anyway. The excess charge is turned into a small amount of heat, which won't harm the battery as long as it doesn't go on for too long. The process is somewhat like filling a bathtub with a very slow stream of water, counting on the excess water to evaporate faster than it accumulates on the floor after the tub overflows.

Dumb chargers were the norm in the NiCd days, and many a NiCd battery was ruined by leaving it connected to the charger all the time. A prime example of this is the popular rechargeable handheld vacuum cleaner, most of which don't last more than a year or so before the battery refuses to remain charged.

Ni-MH batteries are more prone than NiCd to damage caused by being left connected to a dumb charger, so such chargers are starting to disappear from common use.

If you do use a dumb charger you should remove the batteries from the charger when the charging is complete. The problem is knowing when this has happened. Most dumb chargers are designed to charge at a rate that takes 14 to 16 hours for a full charge. However, this is only the case if the batteries were fully depleted before beginning the charge. Partially depleted batteries will reach full charge sooner. Furthermore, if you use the charger with batteries of a higher capacity than it was designed for, a full charge will take longer than 14 to 16 hours. In short, properly charging with a dumb charger is a guessing game

Some of the above mentioned notes for Ni-MH battery charging are also applicable for other rechargeable batteries, such as lithium ion battery, LiFePO4 battery, and so on.

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• 29/8/2012 - Charging Methods for NiMH Battery

Some battery experts feel that trickle charging is detrimental to the long term health of the battery, much like continuous overcharging on a dumb charger is. An alternative approach is to use a dumb charger connected to a timer set to provide power to the charger for only half an hour per day.

I've personally used this technique with the 1.6Ah NiMH batteries in my radio-control transmitter and so far the battery is still going strong after about five years of this treatment. Once these batteries start to deteriorate, I will replace them with low-self-discharge ones and just recharge them after I've used them.

Method 1. Continuous Current.

The simplest method of trickle charging (at least for a manufacturer) is to just reduce the charging current to about C/40. If the charger already charges at the standard C/10 rate, then all the manufacturer need do is add a resistor (and possibly a switch for trickle/standard mode and a charge indicator LED). This is the method used by most trickle chargers.

Method 2. Pulsed Current.

If we switch a C/10 standard charger on and off such that it is on for only 10% of the time, we would be continuously replacing any lost charge. We could do this by switching a C/10 charger on for one second off for nine seconds. This is similar to the method used by the Ultimate Battery Analyzer. This is more complicated for the manufacturer than the continuous current method, but easier for the user. If we switch the AC side of our standard chargers, we can simultaneously trickle charge all our Ni-MH batteries. Unfortunately the 24 hour security timer can't switch on and off fast enough for this method, but it can do something else, as shown below.

Method 3. Daily Charge Replacement.

This method allows the battery to self-discharge during the day then it replaces the lost charge once per day. It is a simple and inexpensive method. Set the timer to turn on for at least one half hour each day. Plug your chargers into the timer (a power bar comes in handy here), and the timer into the AC socket. Everyday your batteries will get a top-up charge and will be ready for use.

What would happen if you accidentally connect a fully or partially discharged battery to your trickle charger? Method 1 has the advantage that it will charge the battery in about 3 days (although this isn't recommended because the battery might not reach its maximum capacity, you should always charge at the C/10 rate). Methods 2 and 3 with their slower charging could take over a month. Increasing the duty cycle 'on' time of methods 2 and 3 will reduce the charging time, but at the expense of slightly greater heating. You can increase method 2's duty cycle up to 25% (1 second on, 3 seconds off) with little adverse effects. At 25% duty cycle, full charge will take four times as long as at the C/10 rate (about 3 days). Increasing method 3's duty cycle to 25% will warm the pack for 6 hours every day.

An important consideration of which method you choose is verifying that the packs are on trickle charge. Method 2 has the advantage that you can see the flashing charge lights and know that the system is working. Method 1 does not draw enough current from the charger to light its LEDs, thus unless you have installed additional charge LEDs it is impossible to tell if the battery is actually charging. Since method 3 only turns on the charger for one half hour each day it is difficult to verify its operation. Method 1 also has the disadvantage in that being a continuous charging system, it promotes cadmium migration. Cadmium migration is something we want to avoid, and pulse charging (methods 2 and 3) reduce the chances of it happening.

Like lithium ion battery, nimh batteries can packed together as well. But pack voltage will be quite different from lithium ion batteries. For instance, 3 lithium ion cells placed in series make a 11.1V lithium pack, while 3 nimh battery will just make a 3.6V pack. The charging way for nimh battery pack is almost the same with the charging way for nimh cells.

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• 3/7/2012 - Struggling for the Growth of Lithium Ion Battery

If you are engaged in the electronic industry, improvement of batteries and developments of the old lithium-ion battery may be your first concern. So this is with many companies.

The latest developments in SWeNT carbon nanotubes efficacy in lithium-ion batteries is quite attracting. The companys specialty multi-wall carbon nanotubes demonstrate easier dispersion and superior electrical conductivity when compared to other multi-wall carbon nanotubes in commercial quantities.

Prada Silvy informed that the company is happy about the research results according to which 1% wt of SweNT specialty multi-walled carbon nanotubes are capable of substituting 6% wt typical conductive carbon-P used in the current formulation of lithium-ion battery cathodes, thus providing enhanced performance in rate capability, improved specific energy, augmented cycle life, and minimal impedance in high power electrodes. Optimal control over the carbon nanotube structure, which includes lower structural defects, less number of walls, higher aspect ratio and morphology, and high purity levels are the basis of these performance properties.

The company will also display its SMW specialty multi-wall carbon nanotube line of products, SMW200 and SMW210. These grades are utilized as additives to improve the performance of lithium ion battery cathodes and provide superior electrical conductivity in polymer compounds. The company will also introduce its new single-wall carbon nanotube product called the SG65i, which has more content of semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes designed for printed semiconductor devices.

The companys semi-conductive and conductive carbon nanotube inks for use in displays and flexible printed electronics are relied on V2V Ink, a technology devised by alliance partner,Chasm Technologies. With single-wall carbon nanotubes, printing of these inks can be done utilizing commercial, high-volume printing techniques and equipment such as screen printing, gravure and flexographic.

The new grades, SMW200 and SMW210 have demonstrated the greatest ease of dispersions and lowest percolation threshold of any MWCNT product in multiple customer thermoplastic compound evaluations. This enables ESD (electrostatic discharge) performance at lower filler loadings than either Carbon Black or other Multi-wall CNT, in a variety of polymers. This low percolation threshold minimizes the degradation of physical properties of the polymer, a common problem in heavily loaded compounds, and higher conductivity at comparable loading broadens the range of applications for conductive polymer compounds. Additionally, SMW200 compounds have been shown to have improved mechanical properties when compared to other MWCNT.

Both materials are synthesized by the CoMoCAT method, widely recognized as producing the most consistent CNT products, and for its scalability. Both materials disperse easily into most polymers and have the same ultra-pure, defect-free, less entangled CNT. SMW200 is a purified grade, with CNT purity of 96%+ (even higher purity research grades are available upon special request). SMW210 is an as produced grade, with CNT purity of 70%+, with the balance being mainly metal oxides used in the catalyst.

Because post-synthesis purification is not done for SMW210, the pricing is much lower.SMW210 has a hybrid structure with metal-oxide particles attached to the CNT, improving dispersion still further, at a much lower cost. In thermoplastic compounds, there is little performance difference between SMW200 and SMW210 with respect to ease of dispersion, conductivity and percolation, with most customers choosing SMW210 due to lower cost.

Now the CNT products may come out to be the replacement of lithium ion batteries, and the lithium batteries such as lipo, li-mh batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries may also be replaced by some other supirior batteries.

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• 3/7/2012 - Your Home and Computer to be Power by Nature Source

Most wind and solar-powered homes remain connected to the national electric grid, largely because it is difficult and expensive to install batteries large enough to keep the house powered through low wind or sun periods. Ceramatec's new battery, however, uses solid materials to store between 20 and 40 kilowatt hours of electricity at temperatures of only 90 degrees Celsius. In contrast, most high-density batteries use liquids heated to dangerous temperatures of roughly 600 degrees.

The battery can release electricity at a continuous rate of five kilowatts for a period of four hours. This would be enough to power a vacuum cleaner, stereo, sewing machine, trash compactor, food processor, thirty-three 60-watt light bulbs and one electric stovetop burner. This means that most of the batteris, such as lithium-ion battery, li-po batteries, ni-mh battery, cr2025 lithium batteries, etc, will be replaced.

The batteries are currently being tested to see how many charge-discharge cycles they can support throughout their lifetimes. Currently the batteries have made it through 200 and are still going strong, and the scientists estimate a lifespan of 3,650 cycles -- or one cycle every day for 10 years. Since each battery costs approximately $2,000, this would translate into a cost of only three cents per kilowatt hour -- in contrast to the eight cents per kilowatt hour charged by the typical electric company.

Batteries such as these, matching high capacity with low cost, have the potential to revolutionize the field of home-generated electricity, perhaps even rendering centrally generated power obsolete.

This changes the whole scope of things and would have a major impact on what we're trying to do, said Clyde Shepherd of Alpine, Utah, whose home is powered by two windmills. Something that would provide 20 kilowatts would put us near 100 percent of what we would need to be completely independent. It would save literally thousands of dollars a year.

Now let's talk about battery in the computer field. The future of portable power for notebook computers is fast approaching, and it looks promising: lithium ion batteries will soon be augmented or replaced by more exotic power systems. The two most promising candidates are solar power and micro fuel cells.

Solar cells are seeing a major breakthrough with the ability to print flexible sheets of solar panel material that can be folded like maps or wrapped around other objects (like your notebook). No longer will solar technology be large, heavy and clunky.

Micro fuel cells are also seeing technologybreakthroughs even before first-generation fuel cellshave appeared on the market. Compared tobatteries, micro fuel cells offer extraordinary advantages: 1/20th the weight while delivering as much as ten times the power.

So which technology is better? Solar power wins this designation, since it's free, renewable and clean. But solar power isn't always available, especially if you're working indoors or during evening hours. So common batteries, namely, lithium-ion batteries are still needed. Micro fuel cells offer portable power anytime, anywhere, albeit at a fixed price per watt: the more power you use, the more you have to pay.

In the end, a hybrid approach seems to be the best: charge your notebook computer with free sunlight when available, but run on fuel cells the rest of the time. Of course, having both power systems in a notebook computer will increase the base cost of the unit, so that's yet another cost penalty for upgrading to modern power technology. But if you're like most notebook computer users, you'll appreciate the 10 - 12 hours of uninterrupted notebook uptime, even if it costs you 25% more than today's notebook computers.

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• 3/7/2012 - Always Moving on, Lithium Ion Battery

With current battery systems reaching their performance limits, researchers are scrutinizing every component of lithium-ion cells in order to develop energy storage mechanisms that can make electric vehicles better competitors to fossil-fueled engines.

Lithium-ion systems have made tremendous strides since they were invented in the 1970s. The cells have matured beyond expensive, fire-prone energy systems, becoming the go-to chemistry to power new mobile devices and electric vehicles. Still, prices need to drop further and the batteries themselves need be more durable to drive electric cars into more driveways and garages.

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory outside Chicago are now tackling this problem, from designing batteries by the molecule in computers to postmortem battery analyses. In the process, the facility hopes to create innovations that will drive the industry, giving American manufacturers an edge over other countries as these energy storage systems find their way under the hood.

Khalil Amine, senior fellow scientist and manager for the Advanced Lithium Battery Program at Argonne, noted that historically, the United States led the world in energy storage research, but other countries like South Korea, Japan and China were better at commercializing these technologies.

But with high gasoline prices and increased global competition, the U.S. government has taken a renewed interest in developing and producing next-generation batteries within its borders. Energy storage now is very strategic, not only for Argonne, but for the country, Amine said. Whoever develops the technology will become the Saudi Arabia of batteries, so obviously it's very critical to get the technologies.

During charging, an external electrical power source (the charging circuit) applies an over-voltage (a higher voltage but of the same polarity) than that produced by the battery, forcing the current to pass in the reverse direction. The lithium ions then migrate from the positive to the negative electrode, where they become embedded in the porous electrode material in a process known as intercalation. There is a little difference for the other lithium based batteries, such as cr2025 lithium battery.

The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the negative electrode, positive electrode, and the electrolyte. The negative electrode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon. The positive electrode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.The electrochemical roles of the electrodes change between anode and cathode, depending on the direction of current flow through the cell.

The most commercially popular negative electrode material is graphite. The positive electrode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide).

The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate containing complexes of lithium ions. These non-aqueous electrolytes generally use non-coordinating anion salts such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate monohydrate (LiAsF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), and lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3).

Depending on materials choices, the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium ion battery can change dramatically. Recently, novel architectures using nanotechnology have been employed to improve performance.

Pure lithium is very reactive. It reacts vigorously with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Thus, a non-aqueous electrolyte is typically used, and a sealed container rigidly excludes water from the battery pack.

Lithium ion batteries are more expensive than NiCd batteries but operate over a wider temperature range with higher energy densities, while being smaller and lighter. They are fragile and so need a protective circuit to limit peak voltages.

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• 25/6/2012 - Time for the Showing of Other Lithium Batteries

A critical but frequently misunderstood battery performance metric is the relationship between power and energy.Hybrid electric vehicles, or HEVs, are power applications that typically use a small (±1.4 kWh) battery pack to absorb braking energy for immediate re-use in the next acceleration cycle. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or PHEVs, occupy the middle ground and use a mid-sized (5.2 to 16 kWh) battery pack to offer both hybrid and electric drive functions, which means they require both power and energy. Battery electric vehicles, or BEVs, are energy applications that use a massive (24 to 85 kWh) battery pack, mostly lithium-ion battery pack, to propel vehicles for long distances at high speeds.

In general, HEV batteries cost more per kWh than PHEV batteries, which in turn cost more per kWh than BEV batteries. Likewise, smaller battery packs for short-range BEVs from Nissan  cost more per kWh than larger battery packs for long-range BEVs from Tesla Motors.

Most battery packs are designed with safety margins that reduce battery strain from operating a vehicle at a very high or a very low state of charge. Since nominal capacity is always higher than useful capacity, battery pack cost per kWh of useful energy is always higher than than nominal battery pack cost.

Recent advances in battery technology could mean that the next generation of batteries will last ten times longer than current batteries.

The new tech known as Lithium-air batteries use the oxygen in the air as part of the chemical reactions that make batteries work. The biggest hurdle up until now has been that the oxygen also reacts with other parts of the battery causing them to deteriorate.

But the latest research has turned up an electrolyte material that doesn’t react with oxygen. This means that, in the lab at least, Lithium-air batteries are stable and can be charged-discharged multiple times without a performance drop. If these batteries ever make it to the market, they could have ten times the capacity of today’s lithium-ion batteries.

So what does that mean for smartphones and tablets? The average battery life of the Samsung Galaxy S3 while surfing the web is a little over 5 hours. Now imagine the same phone with a Lithium-air battery, that number would jump to 50 hours. The lithium batteries, such as lithium ion, cr2025 lithium battery, lithium polymer battery may all be replaced by this lithium-air battery.

What about a tablet? The advertised battery life of the Amazon Kindle Fire is 8 hours for video playback. This means you can watch a couple of films and still have enough charge to check your email and play a bit of Angry Birds. But what if it had a Lithium-air battery. The theoretical life would be 80 hours. That means you could charge the tablet and then use it for an entire week. You could watch a film a day and spend several hours surfing the web and playing games and still have power in the battery after seven or eight days.

With 80 hours of potential battery life, tablet and smartphone designers would have unprecedented power resources available. This could be used to power brighter displays and boost the usage of traditionally battery draining items such as Bluetooth, NFC and GPS. It also means that less battery material needs to be used making the devices smaller and lighter.

Now lithium ion batteries may quit the stage and be repalced by better batteries.

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• 25/6/2012 - Lithium-Ion, Needs to Be Better

Many companies are working on coming up with better materials for the cathode or the anode in order to increase the energy density of the battery cell, such as lithium-ion batteries. Some companies also are working on improving other parts of a battery cell to increase its lifespan or minimize overheating problems that could lead to fire hazards.

For an inexpensive manufacturing process, Norton has turned to electroplating, which has been around for more than a century for coating a variety of materials. The idea is to coat the tin material onto the copper component that conducts electricity. Right now, graphite has to be mixed with a binding material before being attached to this copper current collector. Putting tin directly onto the copper piece would reduce the manufacturing steps and costs, Norton said.

Of course, turning an idea from the lab to a commercial product is typically a long and expensive process. And companies often have to make many modifications along the way. Norton is hoping to catch the attention of battery makers or investors to give his idea a try.

If the low-temperature tests also demonstrate better power delivery, the new cells could be a game-changing battery breakthrough for the electrification of transportation, including the emerging micro-hybrid vehicle segment. Better cold-weather performance could enable lithium-ion cells to be used in 12-Volt starter batteries, which would likely weigh only one-quarter to one-half what today's lead-acid batteries do. Lead-acid has remained the technology of choice for starter batteries simply because it retains its power output even in frigid winter temperatures. So improvement has to be made for lithium batteries, such as lithium ion batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries, li-po batteries.

That weight reduction could prove very appealing to carmakers who must reduce vehicle weight as one way to meet increasingly stringent fuel efficiency requirements.

There are many electronic companyies trying to improve their batteries. In Germany, there is a concern that the integration of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, into the power grid could cause instability in power distribution because of their unpredictable nature," said Mr. Fumitoshi Terashima, Director, Smart Energy Systems Business Unit, Energy Company of Panasonic.

The lithium-ion battery system consists of the Panasonic battery module with nominal capacity of 1.35kWh and a battery management system designed to control charge and discharge of the battery in accordance with customer needs. The battery system stores excess energy generated from the photovoltaic (PV) power system during peak hours of PV generation and discharges the energy as needed, providing an ideal solution as a household battery storage system that helps self-consumption of solar-generated power. It will also enable households to reduce the dependence on grid power and facilitate the further spread of green energy.

With our state-of-art lithium ion battery technology and high-quality battery management systems, we will promote self-consumption of solar power generated by households as well as reduction of load during peak hours. In so doing, Panasonic aims for a leading position in providing a solution to protect the power grid system.

Panasonic Group continues to accelerate the development and commercialization of high-performance battery storage systems and contributes to the growth of the global market for such systems.

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• 25/6/2012 - Lengthen Lithium Ion Battery Life

Poor battery life and the need to recharge smart phones often remain a huge pain for consumers. Help could be on the way. Researchers at the Washington State University," said Wednesday they have figured out how pack more energy into a lithium-ion battery and boost the rate of charging it.

The trick is to replace graphite with tin for the anode, which is one of the two main components in a battery cell, said Grant Norton, who headed the research and is a professor of mechanical and materials engineering at the university. Using tin can increase the energy storage capacity of a battery cell by nearly three times, he said.

Battery cells, by the way, refer to products such as the conventional AA batteries inside a flash light. A battery pack or system, on the other hand, usually refers to a bunch of battery cells that have been encased and come with electronic devices to manage their charging and discharging and monitor their temperatures and performance. An electric car, for example, has a sophisticated battery system.

When you charge a battery, lithium ions travel from the cathode to the anode, where the anode holds onto the lithium ions to store the energy. When you use a battery, the electrons then move from the anode to the cathode and let loose of electrons in the process to store the energy in the batteries, such as lead acid batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries, lithium polymer batteries, etc.

Tin is better than graphite but not as good as silicon at holding onto the lithium ions. But using tin may prove a faster way to improve a battery cell's performance. At least that was what Norton set out to prove. Sony, for example, uses a blend of tin and other materials for some of its lithium-ion batteries. After some experimenting, Norton settled on growing tin in the form of needles (about 50 nanometers in length) and adding textures to the material to create more surface area. A larger surface area means a greater ability to hold onto more lithium ions.

It's like when water gets absorbed into the cellular structure of a sponge. You want a lot of surface area to absorb a lot of water," Norton said.

The research at Washington State focuses on the anode, which typically is made with graphite. Graphite is inexpensive and stable, and the process of using graphite to build the anode is well understood. Scientists have known that other materials can hold more lithium ions and increase the amount of energy that can be packed into a cell. But there are several key obstacles for using these alternative materials: figuring out the right nanostructures to best grab those lithium ions, trouble-shooting potential problems that could compromise a cell's performance, and coming up with an inexpensive manufacturing process to build these materials into cells.

Silicon, for example, can hold a lot more lithium ion than graphite, but it's quite unstable in that battery cell environment and can cut short a battery's life. The promise of using silicon to significantly boost a battery cell's energy density has attracted a lot of research and investment dollars, however.

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• 25/6/2012 - Batteries Cheaper for Buyers and Producers

Graphite is one of the most versatile of non-metallic minerals. Used in batteries, lubricants, brake linings, refractories and foundries, graphite can be either synthetic or natural. Natural and synthetic graphite industries operate independently and have little crossover in market share and end uses. The rise of the Lithium-ion battery has caused great excitement in the graphite industry in recent times. Demand for batteries (primarily nickel-metal-hydride and to a lesser extent Lithium-ion ) caused a surged in graphite demand in the late 1980s and early 1990s - driven by portable electronics such as the walkman and power tools. Lithium Batteries are the fastest growing end and use 10X the graphite to lithium in the expanding electric auto market. Batteries are the fastest growing end use for graphite. Electric vehicles hold the potential to see graphite demand boom. For example, the Li-ion battery in the fully electric Nissan Leaf contains nearly 40 kg of graphite.

China dominates world graphite production and represents 75% of total output. India is the second largest producer followed by Brazil, north Korea, Austria and Canada. The U.S. has no current natural graphite production but with National Graphite Corp's exploration commitment plans, this will soon change.

National Graphite Corp is one of a handful of companies owning graphite exploration properties in the Quebec and Ontario, and with this acquisition one of the only potential US Producers. National Graphite (Formerly Lucky Boy Silver Corp) will continue development of its Nevada silver and gold claims. And other researches are going on the find the best chemical material to improve lithium batteries, such as lithium ion batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries, lithium polymer batteries,etc.

A123 Systems Inc said it has developed a new technology that allows lithium ion batteries to function in extreme temperatures, eliminating the need for separate heating and cooling systems and potentially making electric vehicles (EVs) cheaper.

The development of Nanophosphate EXT, as the technology is called, could potentially increase the adoption of the struggling company's rechargeable batteries, analysts said.

Shares of the company shot up 61 percent to $1.67 on Tuesday on the Nasdaq. Nearly 26 million shares of the company were traded by 1730 GMT, 17 times their ten-day average volume.

A123 said the ability to work in a wider range of temperatures and the lower costs will create new opportunities for its products in the transportation and telecommunications markets. The high cost of lithium ion batteries has held back their large-scale adoption. The heating or cooling systems account for 10 to 20 percent of the total cost of the lithium ion battery, said Stifel Nicolaus analyst Jeff Osborne, citing the Electric Power Research Institute.

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• 19/6/2012 - What Do You Know About the Future Lithium-Ion Battery

Most people think of lithium ion batteries as the type of batteries that power laptops and cell phones, and not a commercial grade workhorse. The new lithium batteries are based on nanostructured electrodes, where chemistry of the cells has been configured to allow a lot of electrical charges without wearing out. There are many reasons batteries age, with heat being one of the main reasons. With the latest battery, improved chemistry offers more power even under extremely high temperatures, without sacrificing storage or energy capabilities.

Creating efficient battery technology has been an ongoing challenge for developers. There are no real moving parts in a battery, but simply put, it is difficult to build a battery that holds a charge for long periods – and especially hard when materials are potentially volatile and unstable. With today s announcement of a new type of lithium ion battery capable of operating in extreme heat or cold, Greg Tremelling said that although he has not been involved with any RD with this new technology, he'll be leveraging it for new customers, especially for use on electrical power grids run by renewable energy sources.

One of the technologies was done on the Formula One circuit, integrating a hybrid power boost system into a race car. Using batteries at certain points around the track, the driver was able to hit a button and add a large boost to the horsepower of the car. This was an exciting development because the battery was operating at high power levels and high temperatures.

The supplier of lithium-ion batteries to BMW, General Motors and Fisker has developed new cell technology that could extend the range and cut the price of electric vehicles from as early as next year.

The production of the new nanophosphate EXT cells, which operate more efficiently and offer a more stable full-charge range in extreme hot and cold weather conditions, would begin in 2013.

Vieau said the new cells would do away with the need for hybrids, plug-ins and EVs to be equipped with systems to maintain consistent battery temperatures, subsequently reducing vehicle weight, complexity and cost.

Conventional lithium ion batteries do use rare metals, such as cobalt and nickel, in the positive electrode. But these metals are costly, and supplies are not always stable. Eliminating them will likely make the batteries cheaper to manufacture.

Itaru Honma succeeded in replacing these metals with organic substances. As a result, materials costs for the positive electrode have been slashed to less than one-fifth what they were before.

Honma made a button-sized lithium ion battery, like the shape of a cr2025 lithium battery, for testing. This prototype achieved an energy density of 200 watt-hours per kilogram, roughly double that of current lithium ion batteries. Tests confirmed that the button-sized battery could withstand at least 100 charge-discharge cycles.

The next step will be to look further for organic materials that more efficiently store power and boost the battery's capacity, with a goal of developing a secondary battery for electric vehicles.

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• 19/6/2012 - The Born of New Lithium Ion Batteries

After many researches, new lithium-ion batteries that run 33% longer and have an increased lifespan of 33% over traditional rechargeable batteries have been found finally. The Ultra-M 4.0 Ah batteries come with a variety of Metabo's cordless power tools, including the W18 LTX 4 1/2 angle grinder, the SB18 LTX 1/2 hammer drill and the BS18 LTX increasing productivity and lowering overall operation costs.

As with all lithium ion batteries, the Ultra-M 4.0 Ah does not have a memory effect. It can be charged at the user's convenience without having to wait for the battery to totally discharge and does not lose any of its charging capability.

These lightweight, compact batteries feature Metabo's patented air-cooled charging technology that cools the battery pack to a level temperature during charging using guided air flow ducting.

This unique charging technology increases productivity by shortening the charging process and helps sustain the life of the battery by keeping individual cells cooler during the charging process.

The Ultra-M 4.0 Ah batteries feature Metabo's state-of-the-art cell monitoring system, Electronic Single Cell Protection (ESCP), that electronically monitors the individual cells during the charging and discharging process to prevent damage as well as to prolong battery life. The batteries and charger are covered by Metabo's three-year warranty; if they don't charge, they are replaced at no cost. Most batteries are made from lithium ion, and employ carbon as the anode. Other materials perform much better than carbon, and could substantially increase battery capacity. Tin anodes could potentially triple energy density, and silicon anodes might be able to hold 9 times as much charge as carbon. Such advances could lead to tablet computers and laptops that run for days before battery depletion, and to miniature, battery powered UAVs able to remain aloft for up to an hour. In an interview with Sander Olson for Next Big Future, Washington State University Professor Grant Norton discusses how battery technology could dramatically improve within the next several years, and how batteries with 9 times the energy density of current batteries could emerge within a decade.

The lithium-ion battery has many beneficial features, but there is room for improvement. This is why researchers are examining new materials. So we have looked into the prospect of replacing carbon in the anode with tin, which could lead to a tripling of energy density. It would still be a lithium-ion battery, but it would have better performance.

They should be able hold 3x as much charge. But there are other materials, such as silicon, which could take the performance beyond that of tin. Replacing carbon with silicon should lead to 9x better energy storage.

There are also research labs who are using silicon as anodes. Silicon will definitely be a competitor down the road, when costs can be sufficiently reduced. But there are numerous technical issues that need to be surmounted in order to cost-effectively mass-produce silicon anodes. So that is probably a decade or more away. But a 9x improvement over commercial batteries is clearly worth investigating.

Since there are multiple versions of fuel cells out there, a direct comparison is difficult. In many applications, particularly where high energy-densities are needed, they are superior to batteries. There are non-trivial cost issues with fuel cells, and so I hesitate to say unequivocally that they are superior.

Within a decade, we could have batteries that offer 9x performance and longer lifetimes than current lithium-ion batteries, such as lithium polymer batteries, lithium ion carbon batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries. So many of our clean energy initiatives absolutely depend on superior battery technology than we have now. If the 21st century is to be the century of green power, then we will need to develop much better battery technology than we have now.

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• 19/6/2012 - A New Lithium Ion Technology

Recently, a new battery technology is introduced. It calls Nanophosphate EXT, which can operate at extreme temperatures without requiring the degree of heating or cooling found in today's electric cars to keep the lithium-ion battery pack at the right operating temperature to protect the cells. It is a breakthrough in Lithium Ion Battery Technology That Optimizes Performance in Extreme Temperatures. Nanophosphate EXT™, a new lithium ion battery technology capable of operating at extreme temperatures without requiring thermal management.

Most electric and range-extended electric cars today--although not the current Nissan Leaf--have some form of thermal conditioning, often liquid coolant and radiators, to remove excess heat from their battery packs. Pumping coolant through this system eats up energy and reduces on-road range.

The Nanophosphate EXT cells deliver high power, energy and cycle life capabilities over a wider temperature range, and that it would open new markets for its iron-phosphate cells, and the Nanophosphate EXT cells deliver 20 percent more power than its current line of cells at that temperature.Its cells retain more than 90 percent of their energy capacity even after 2,000 full charge-discharge cycles at a temperature of 45 degrees Celsius. That's equivalent to completely depleting an electric car's range at temperatures above 110 degrees Fahrenheit every single weekday for seven and a half years. The performance of the new cells is unlike anything we’ve ever seen from lead acid, lithium ion or any other battery technology.

Nanophosphate EXT is designed to significantly reduce or eliminate the need for heating or cooling systems, which is expected to create sizeable new opportunities within the transportation and telecommunications markets, among others. We believe Nanophosphate EXT is a game-changing breakthrough that overcomes one of the key limitations of lead acid, standard lithium ion and other advanced batteries. By delivering high power, energy and cycle life capabilities over a wider temperature range, we believe Nanophosphate EXT can reduce or even eliminate the need for costly thermal management systems, which we expect will dramatically enhance the business case for deploying A123's lithium ion battery solutions for a significant number of applications, said David Vieau, CEO of A123 Systems.

We continue to emphasize innovation with a commercial purpose, and we expect Nanophosphate EXT to strengthen our competitive position in existing target markets as well as create new opportunities for applications that previously were not possible to cost-effectively serve with lithium ion batteries. Unlike lead acid or other advanced battery technologies, Nanophosphate EXT is designed to maintain long cycle life at extreme high temperatures and deliver high power at extreme low temperatures.

Nanophosphate EXT maintains impressive cycle life even at extreme high temperatures without sacrificing storage or energy capabilities, especially as compared with the competitive leading lithium ion technology that we used on our head-to-head testing. We also expect new technology in the improving of other lithium batteries, such as lithium polymer batteries, cr2025 lithium batteries, etc. If our testing also validates the low-temperature power capabilities that A123's data is showing, we believe Nanophosphate EXT could be a game-changing battery breakthrough for the electrification of transportation, including the emerging micro hybrid vehicle segment.

Nanophosphate EXT is based on lithium iron phosphate battery technology, which offers high power, long cycle life, increased usable energy and excellent safety as compared to other available battery technologies.

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• 15/6/2012 - Safer Lithium Ion Battery

We need safer materials. Today's lithium ion cells are protected by electronic circuitry that is not fail-safe. Possible solutions include coatings that can prevent thermal runaway without interfering with battery efficiency, he noted.

Still, Thackeray told the audience, Lithium-ion systems offer the best near-term opportunities. If we can improve, even incrementally, the performance of lithium-ion batteries, we'll be making a good start. But Miller pointed out that lithium-ion technology could still reach a plateau, beyond which it would be necessary to move on with more promising chemical combinations

Here is some ways to keep you and your lithium ion battery safe when charging and discharging it. Do not discharge lithium-ion too deeply. Instead, charge it frequently. Lithium-ion does not have memory problems like nickel-cadmium batteries. No deep discharges are needed for conditioning.

Do not charge lithium-ion at or below freezing temperature. Although accepting charge, an irreversible plating of metallic lithium will occur that compromises the safety of the pack.

Not only does a lithium-ion battery live longer with a slower charge rate; moderate discharge rates also help. Figure 5 shows the cycle life as a function of charge and discharge rates. Observe the improved laboratory performance on a charge and discharge rate of 1C compared to 2 and 3C.

Lithium is explosive in water, Arun Majumdar, director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy, or ARPA–e, which is funding PolyPlus's development effort, noted at the agency's second annual conference March 1. By ensconcing the lithium inside the membrane's seal, the PolyPlus battery reacts safely with the oxygen dissolved in the water and delivers as much as 1,300 watt-hours per kilogram of electricity. This is like a fish, but it's a battery.

Reinventing the battery is the only way available today to both reduce oil consumption and bring manufacturing jobs back to the U.S., Secretary of Energy Steven Chu told conference attendees. John Goodenough at The University of Texas at Austin invented the lithium ion battery in use today—but Japanese and Korean companies now produce the most globally. Just because we lost the lead doesn't mean we can't get it back, Chu said, referencing battery technology from Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois now being licensed by General Motors and LG.

One downside: lithium ion batteries do not dispense their charge—carried by lithium ions and electrons, hence the power source's name—very quickly compared with some other types of storage batteries, such as lithium polymer battery, cr2025 lithium battery. Like a huge auditorium that only has a few doors, getting a large volume of patrons (lithium ions) in and out is a drawn-out affair. This phenomenon explains why some electric vehicles (the rip-roaring $109,000 Tesla Roadster with its massive battery pack excluded) can reach high speeds, but they suffer from poor acceleration compared with the propulsive force unleashed by the rapid succession of mini explosions in an internal combustion engine. The slow exchange of ions also means lithium ion batteries recharge slowly—just think of how long you have to charge your tiny cell phone.

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• 15/6/2012 - Lithium Ion, to Go on or to Be Replaced

Khalil Amine, senior fellow scientist and manager for the advanced lithium ion battery program at Argonne, noted that historically, the United States led the world in energy storage research, but other countries like South Korea, Japan and China were better at commercializing these technologies. But with high gasoline prices and increased global competition, the U.S. government has taken a renewed interest in developing and producing next-generation batteries within its borders. Energy storage now is very strategic, not only for Argonne, but for the country, Amine said. Whoever develops the technology will become the Saudi Arabia of batteries, so obviously it's very critical to get the technologies.

The goals are established to say, how can we make this competitive with existing technology. To pay this off in a reasonable timeframe, what does that take? Beyond the costs, there's the troubling fact that lithium-ion batteries need to be closely controlled to avoid thermal runaway – that is, catching on fire.One has to got to increase the energy of existing lithium-ion systems without compromising power and safety

Some scientists are thingking about promote lithium battery, such as lithium ion battery, cr2025 lithium battery, lithium polymer battery, while some scientists are thinking about replacing the now popular lithium battery with some other meterial, such as aluminum.

A piece of aluminum has more free energy content than the same amount of either methanol or ethanol. That, succinctly, explains why scientists are now trying to perfect batteries based on chemistry that involves aluminum. Even better, aluminum-ion batteries promise to squeeze more energy into a given space than the lithium-ion batteries thatseem to be in the headlines these days for all the wrong reasons.

The ORNL researchers devised an aluminum-ion coin cell that used aluminum in the anode and spinel manganese- oxide as the cathode, a material that reacts reversibly with aluminum. Another research group at Cornell University has devised a similar aluminum-ion coin cell, but with a different cathode material. Researchers, directed by Cornell Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Lynden Archer, used the same ionic electrolyte as the ORNL team but substituted vanadium-oxide nanowires as the cathode. The aluminum wets and permeates the pores of the metal-oxide cathode. The resulting battery is electrochemically stable over a relatively wide range of voltages and currents, says the team.

And a switch from lithium-ion to aluminum-ion chemistry wouldn t eliminate problems arising from a complete discharge of an EV battery. These difficulties made headlines recently when it came to light that a few owners of Tesla roadsters had let the batteries in their $100,000 EVs discharge to zero and were stuck paying for replacements at costs running well into five figures.

Moreover, aluminum-ion batteries that get smashed in a crash could cause the same concerns as lithium-ion cells. These came into national prominence when a Chevy Volt s lithium-ion battery pack caught fire three weeks after a severe, side-impact rollover crash test. But initial indications are that aluminum-ion batteries would have no more crash concerns than their lithiumion cousins, though there are a lot of unknowns. Both lithium and aluminum are reactive with oxygen and water, says ORNL s Parans Paranthaman. In a breech of the battery package, aluminum has one additional factor going for it because aluminum oxide will form on the surface of the anode and quench the reaction. Of course, this will also wreck the battery.

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• 15/6/2012 - Good Battery, Better Lithium Ion Battery

Lithium ion batteries are omnipresent in today’s modern world. They power our mobile phones, notebooks, and digital cameras. They help entertain our kids on-the-go in handheld video-game consoles. And they support our mobility on the road in electric and hybrid cars – an increasingly important aspect in the light of continually rising gas prices. With the upsurge of worldwide demand for battery-powered devices, research that targets the development of new cost-efficient, high-performance battery materials is of immense interest.

In a rechargeable lithium-ion battery, mobility of the lithium ions is crucial. Lithium moves from the negative to the positive pole when the battery is discharged. It moves in the opposite direction when the battery is charged. Due to the pore structure, the lithium can diffuse much faster into and out of the material. Compared to other materials, a battery with mesoporous hematite thin-film electrodes will be extremely fast to charge.

Two important quality factors for a lithium-ion battery are the amount of lithium stored in the battery as well as the number of charging cycles before the battery capacity drops, i.e. the lifetime of the battery. Using electrochemical methods, the researchers showed that both factors are greatly enhanced in mesoporous thin films as compared to bulk hematite or small particles of hematite. The mesoporous films store over thirteen times more lithium ions than hematite microcrystals (thousandths of a millimeter in size). In the voltage range used in the study, the thin films even surpass the specific capacities of other known lithium battery materials to make better lithium batteries, such as lithium polymer battery, cr2025 lithium battery, etc. The researchers were also able to perform an impressive 200 charging cycles without noticing a significant drop in charge storage.

A new technique could pave the way for improving the workhorse lithium ion battery used in automobiles, cell phones and other devices so that it can recharge in seconds. Utimately, better batteries—or finding a way to keep lithium from combusting in air, like PolyPlus and the Missouri University of Science and Technology are trying to do—can result in reducing the demand for imported oil that sends $1 billion per day abroad, largely to Canada, Middle Eastern countries and Venezuela. "Our national security is very dependent on energy security," Chu noted. "Energy we create at home is wealth creation at home."

A new twist on the familiar lithium ion battery has yielded a type of power-storing material that charges and discharges at lightning speed. The finding could offer a boost for plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles and possibly allow cell phone batteries to regain a full charge in seconds rather than hours.

On the other hand, some projections suggest worldwide lithium ion battery supply could be three times greater than demand. "The upsurge in domestic manufacturing has been a surprise for us," says Kevin Chen, director of business development at manufacturing-equipment supplier Applied Materials.

Recovery Act funds have played a big role in the build-out. One company to benefit is Johnson Controls-Saft. Without stimulus funds, the company would have built a factory in Asia, says John Schaaf Jr., vice president of market development at Johnson Controls.

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• 14/6/2012 - The Use of Lithium

Lithium, a metallic element, is known to most of us. But do you know the use of it? It is used in atomic energy industry, glass making, battery industry,etc. The most often used lithium battery is lithium ion battery. Owning lots of advantages, lithium ion is applied to make cell phone batteries and most mobile devices batteries. Beside the usage in making battery, lithium is also used in medicine.

Lithium is used to treat the manic episodes of manic depression. Manic symptoms include hyperactivity, rushed speech, poor judgment, reduced need for sleep, aggression, and anger. It also helps to prevent or lessen the intensity of manic episodes.

Lithium affects the flow of sodium through nerve and muscle cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania. Lithium may also be used for other purposes not listed except making lithium batteries, such as cr2025, lithium ion batteries, etc.

Lithium comes as a tablet, capsule, extended-release (long-acting) tablet, and solution (liquid) to take by mouth. The tablets, capsules, and solution are usually taken three to four times a day. The extended-release tablets are usually taken two to three times a day. Take lithium at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take lithium exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Lithium is also sometimes used to treat certain blood disorders, depression, schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge to perform a harmful action), and certain mental illnesses in children. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.

Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

Just as a lithium-ion product may cause harm to a body, the lithium medication also has side effects despite of its gteat advantages.

Lithium can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert. Lithium can cause harm to an unborn baby. Do not use this medication without your doctor's consent if you are pregnant. Tell your doctor if you become pregnant during treatment. Use an effective form of birth control while you are using this medication. Lithium can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

So take lithium exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

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• 14/6/2012 - The Pros and Cons of Lithium Ion Battery

The widely used lithium ion has drawbacks; it offers a relatively low discharge current. A high load would overheat the pack and its safety would be jeopardized. The safety circuit of the cobalt-based battery is typically limited to a charge and discharge rate of about 1C. This means that a 2400mAh 18650 cell can only be charged and discharged with a maximum current of 2.4A. Another downside is the increase of the internal resistance that occurs with cycling and aging. After 2-3 years of use, the pack often becomes unserviceable due to a large voltage drop under load that is caused by high internal resistance.

In spite of all these features, the batteries are expected to cost significantly less than the nickel-metal hydride varieties currently used in hybrid vehicles, once production is scaled up. But the increased capacity may ultimately be the most important factor in the realm of electric vehicles, since insufficient capacity has long been the most widely cited obstacle to producing a profitable electric vehicle.

In addition to increased capacity, the new lithium batteries, such as cr2025 and lithium ion batteries, can also discharge energy over a wide range of rates. This means that the battery can provide the power surge required for acceleration as well as the steady rate required for normal driving.

In 1996, scientists succeeded in using lithium manganese oxide as a cathode material. This substance forms a three-dimensional spinel structure that improves the ion flow between the electrodes. High ion flow lowers the internal resistance and increases loading capability. The resistance stays low with cycling, however, the battery does age and the overall service life is similar to that of cobalt. Spinel has an inherently high thermal stability and needs less safety circuitry than a cobalt system.Low internal cell resistance is the key to high rate capability. This characteristic benefits fast-charging and high-current discharging. A spinel-based lithium-ion in an 18650 cell can be discharged at 20-30A with marginal heat build-up. Short one-second load pulses of twice the specified current are permissible. Some heat build-up cannot be prevented and the cell temperature should not exceed 80°C.

The spinel battery also has weaknesses. One of the most significant drawbacks is the lower capacity compared to the cobalt-based system. Spinel provides roughly 1200mAh in an 18650 package, about half that of the cobalt equivalent. In spite of this, spinel still provides an energy density that is about 50% higher than that of a nickel-based equivalent.

The new lithium-ion batteries produce three times as much energy per unit weight as a lead acid battery, like that used in a standard automobile engine. They provide almost twice as much energy per unit weight as the most recent nickel-metal hydride battery.

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